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Production Routes

ITM and CNL as industry leaders

ITM and CNL have over 100 years accumulative experience in the fields of nuclear science, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy.

ITM is a radiopharmaceutical developer and a world-leader in Lutetium-177 (177Lu) production and supply, thus offering a diverse portfolio of transferable expertise. CNL is a pioneer in the development of nuclear science and technology, in addition to bringing decades long experience in the field of isotope production, being one of only four Actinium-225 (225Ac) suppliers currently active today. Actineer is focused on a set of highly complementary respective attributes, covering all key activities of a robust 225Ac production and supply value chain, positioning Actineer for success.

The production of 225Ac will play a critical role in targeted alpha therapy for cancer treatment due to the potent decay chain of 225Ac. The rising global demand for 225Ac has led to the development of various production methods, including accelerator-based techniques and radionuclide generators.

Thorium-229 Radionuclide Generator

A Thorium-229 (229Th)/225Ac radionuclide generator allows the separation of 225Ac from the 229Th starting material and other radioactive products, by a series of separation and extraction chromatography steps.

The 229Th radionuclide generator is capable of producing high-quality 225Ac but has limitations in the frequency in which 225Ac can be produced in sufficiently large quantities.


Thorium-232 Spallation via Proton Irradiation

High-energy proton irradiation of Thorium-232 (232Th) targets is capable of producing large quantities of 225Ac. This approach focuses on the spallation of 232Th which produces 225Ac alongside many other by-products.

This route produces Actinium-227 (227Ac) in addition to 225Ac which cannot be separated from one another in a suitable time-frame and quantities. 227Ac is a concerning radioactive by-product due to its long half-life and hazardous decay chain.

It is feasible to produce a Radium-225 (225Ra)/225Ac generator from this production route, which can avoid the contamination of the 225Ac product with 227Ac, but at significantly reduced 225Ac quantities.


Radium-226 Gamma Irradiation

The irradiation of Radium-226 (226Ra) with high-energy gamma radiation can produce 225Ac indirectly. The irradiation of 226Ra produces 225Ra through a photonuclear reaction which subsequently decays to 225Ac.

The 226Ra gamma irradiation route offers theoretical benefits, such as potentially large quantities of 225Ac in high-quality but proof-of-principle demonstrations of large 225Ac quantities successfully produced are missing.


Radium-226 Proton Irradiation

The irradiation of 226Ra with medium-energy protons can produce 225Ac directly. The irradiation of 226Ra with medium-energy protons has a high cross-section, meaning this reaction has a high probability of occurring, allowing for large quantities to be produced.

Large 225Ac quantities can be produced from this method in high-quality, suitable for medical applications, and has been previously successfully demonstrated.


Actineer’s Approach to Industry Excellence

At Actineer, we have strategically chosen a production methodology that not only ensures safety but also positions us for remarkable scalability. Our commitment extends beyond ecological responsibility; it’s about achieving peak industry performance, securing a reliable supply chain and ensuring patient safety.

Our approach sets a benchmark for safety protocols, preventing the formation of long-lived radioisotopes like Actinium-227. But equally important, it equips us for efficient manufacturing scaling. By leveraging state-of-the-art processes, we’re ready to meet growing demands without compromising safety.

Our closed-loop recycling process begins with recovering the raw material essential for Actinium-225 irradiation, Radium-226. This scarce material undergoes meticulous purification and refinement. By reintroducing recycled material into our production cycle, we minimize waste and enhance overall irradiation capacity.

In summary, Actineer’s approach combines safe production, excellent scalability, and raw material recycling to set a new benchmark for the production of Actinium-225.